Diversion 2015








Industrial, Commercial & Institutional

(IC&I) Waste 3R Strategy






April 2009











City of Ottawa Diversion 2015:  An IC&I 3R Waste Diversion Strategy for Ottawa.

Solid Waste Services Branch, Infrastructure Services & Community Sustainability, City of Ottawa







Copyright City of Ottawa, 2009










The following firms undertook research, analysis, and provided advisory services

in support of the preparation of this document:



Jacques Whitford Environmental Limited

Kelleher Environmental


Project management and document preparation were carried out by:


Solid Waste Services and the

Strategic & Environmental Services Division of

Infrastructure Services & Community Sustainability Department



The City would like to thank the

Stakeholder Advisory Committee and Environmental Advisory Committee

for the thoughtful advice and suggestions

provided in the developmental stages of this strategy.






City of Ottawa

Infrastructure Services & Community Sustainability

Solid Waste Services Branch

110 Laurier Ave. W.

Ottawa, ON.

K1P 1J1




1.0             Introduction                                                                                                 
2.0             Waste Management Roles & Responsibilities                                                  

3.0             Goals                                                                                                          

4.0             Objectives                                                                                                   

5.0             Areas of Focus                                                                                            

6.0             Approach                                                                                                    

7.0     Monitoring, Reporting, and Updating the Strategy                                           

8.0     Costs                                                                                                          

List of Figures

1 – IC&I Waste Composition                                                                         

2 – C&D Waste Composition                                                                        


Appendix A:  Overview by Material                                                                      




Whether at work or at home, we all generate waste.


The waste we generate at home is collected and managed, including recycling and disposal, by the City of Ottawa.   Waste from industrial, commercial and institutional (IC&I) facilities such as schools, government and business offices, hospitals, retail malls, and restaurants collectively know as the IC&I sector, is managed by those entities using private contractors.


Waste generated in construction and demolition (C&D) activities, which is part of the overall IC&I sector, is also managed by the private sector and is included in this Strategy.  C&D waste is generally categorised separately from IC&I waste as it has significantly different characteristics.  C&D waste is included in the overall IC&I strategy presented here.


How much waste is there?


The total amount of waste generated in the City of Ottawa averages approximately 860,000 tonnes per year.  Of this between 30% to 40% is from the residential sector and 60% to 70% from the IC&I sector (including C&D Waste).


It is estimated that less than 20% of IC&I waste is recycled in some manner based upon 2004 Statistics Canada estimates.  This compares to current residential diversion rates of over 30% through recycling programs.  The City has long-term plans and programs for increasing residential diversion rates, such as composting of organic wastes; however, without focussed effort the same cannot be said about the IC&I sector.


The waste generated by the IC&I sector has a major impact on the City’s ability to plan for and manage future disposal capacity and careful planning is required in order to deal with it effectively.


What has the City done so far to Deal with IC&I Waste?


In order to address the need for IC&I diversion over the past several years the City has proactively undertaken several initiatives at the Trail Waste Facility to divert IC&I recyclables from disposal.


§         Loads of clean cardboard are restricted from disposal;

§         Mixed loads of corrugated cardboard are charged double the tipping rate;

§         Mixed loads of waste and compostable brush and yard waste are charged double the tipping fee, segregated loads of compostable brush and yard waste are accepted free of charge;

§         Waste haulers are encouraged to educate their clients on the need to source separate and recycle;

§         Blue and black box recyclables are not accepted for disposal, various bunkers have been installed to allow for on-site separation of small load recyclables; and

§         Several materials are currently restricted from landfill including white goods (e.g. ovens and washing machines.)


Despite these actions, landfills in Ottawa are under pressure.  Expanding our IC&I waste diversion efforts is therefore, essential.


A long-term strategy is needed to stimulate waste minimization, maximize diversion, optimize local landfill capacity, and create a sustainable waste management system for Ottawa’s businesses, institutions, and residents.


The IC&I Strategy outlined in this document analyses the internal and external factors that affect our ability to move forward with aggressive diversion in the IC&I sector and outlines how the City proposes to address them.


City Council has also been active in its efforts to lobby the Province of Ontario. On 11 April 2007, the City of Ottawa passed a motion to lobby the Province to:


§         increase province-wide enforcement of existing regulations on the IC&I sector; and

§         establish a Task Force to formulate integrated waste management strategies for areas within the Province of Ontario.


On August 28th, 2008, Ottawa City Council approved a recommendation to request the Association of Municipalities of Ontario to engage the Government of Ontario in discussions to increase waste diversion in the IC&I sector to reach 60 per cent. Council also approved a recommendation to ask the Federation of Canadian Municipalities to engage the Federal Government in discussions over reducing packaging material and converting packaging material into recyclable material.




2.1    Regulatory Framework


The regulatory framework affecting waste management in Ontario is complex and multi-jurisdictional.  Regulation over the generation and management of IC&I waste occurs at all three levels of government.


Government of Canada


The federal government deals with the larger scale issues, which are more national in scope.  The Government of Canada sets product standards that include specifications regarding the form and function of packaging and manufactured goods.  Such laws may include requirements that particular goods contain a minimum percentage of recycled content; or, that the goods be made of a substance that can be recycled commercially; or that the packaging of the goods is not excessive.  Their impact is less direct and geared towards long term waste reduction initiatives that will affect Canadian society as a whole.


They also deal with issues related to transportation of hazardous materials and cross border movement of waste.


Province of Ontario


The provincial government provides more direct regulatory control of waste management activities.  The province regulates and controls the collection, transfer, processing, and disposal of waste through Certificates of Approval and licensing.  Its control is over the form and function of waste management systems in the province.


The province does not track the amount of waste generated in the province, where or how it is processed, or plan for its long-term management.  Rather, it focuses its efforts on the review, approval, and monitoring of all waste facilities; on regulating source separation amongst large-scale generators; and on designing systems to deal with problematic wastes (e.g. tires and waste electronics).


Municipal Governments


Municipal governments in Ontario are responsible for the collection, transfer, diversion, and disposal of residential waste, but not IC&I waste.  In carrying out these responsibilities, municipal governments must ensure that there is sufficient long term capacity to process and dispose of residential waste, which can include the siting or contracting of landfills or other disposal capacity as well as development and operation of recycling, composting and other diversion programs.


Private Sector


The private sector plays a significant role in the management of waste in Ontario.  In addition to providing contracted collection, diversion, and disposal services on behalf of municipal governments for several residential waste and recycling programs, waste service providers are the sole managers of IC&I waste, with the exception of smaller and remote municipal operations.[1]


2.2    Regulatory Approach




In 1994, the Province of Ontario enacted two regulations under the Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, with the objective of minimizing the amount of waste going to a landfill and maximizing reuse and recycling in the workplace (i.e. IC&I waste).


O. Reg. 102/94, Waste Audits and Waste Reduction Work Plans imposes requirements for the development, implementation and annual update of waste audits and waste reduction plans on various, large, industrial, commercial and institutional entities including retail shopping complexes, large construction projects, large demolition projects, office buildings, restaurants, hotels and motels, hospitals, educational institutions and large manufacturing establishments


O. Reg. 103/94, Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Source Separation Programs imposes requirements for the implementation of source separation programs on the same, large, industrial, commercial and institutional sources of waste as referenced above in O. Reg. 102/94, as well as on multi-residential buildings.  Collection, handling and storage facilities must be provided for the recyclable materials generated and the generators must make reasonable efforts to ensure the program is in full use and that source separated materials are reused or recycled.


In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) announced that it would take steps to improve compliance with the above regulations in order to meet its provincial target of 60% waste diversion by 2008.  Compliance promotion and enforcement activities have increased significantly since then, and inspection results indicate that many businesses and institutions in Ontario are undertaking some form of waste recycling, but not to the degree required by the regulations, and not as part of an overall waste reduction work plan with dedicated staff and resources.


However, it is important to consider that:


§         The regulations apply to less than 30% of the 26,000+ businesses[2] and institutions registered in Ottawa.[3]

§         Since 2006, the MOE Sector Compliance Branch has inspected 40 Ottawa establishments.  None was compliant with Ont. Reg. 102/94, and only 3% were compliant with Ont. Reg. 103/94.  Informal compliance promotion visits to an additional 28 establishments yielded more positive results, however, a significant compliance gap remains.[4]

§         The regulations do not address the lack of recycling and disposal capacity for IC&I waste in Ontario, making it difficult for some to comply.

§         There is no indication that the province intends to ban recyclables or compostables from Ontario landfills, therefore, there is limited incentive beyond the regulations for businesses and institutions to take action.

§         There is inadequate information collected to address questions regarding the generation and management of IC&I waste in Ontario.


For these reasons there is a role for the City to play in further encouraging and facilitating diversion amongst all businesses and institutions in Ottawa.


What Legal Authority does the City have to control the IC&I Waste Stream?


A legal review of the Municipal Act, 2001 as amended by Bill 130, focused on the City’s ability to legislate and control the IC&I waste stream, indicates that the City has the authority to pass by-laws that impose requirements on users of the City’s municipal waste management system. The exercise of this authority cannot, however, result in a conflict with, or frustrate the legislative purpose of, a more senior level of government; for example, Ontario’s provincial regulatory regime addressing waste management. As well, the City may not regulate and control private, non-municipal waste management systems, except to the extent that it affect’s the Municipality’s system.


Under the City of Ottawa Act, 1999, the City’s consent is required for the facilities for receiving, dumping and disposing of waste.  The consent can require that certain conditions be met and/or compensation required.  The exceptions, where the City’s consent is not required, include the services and facilities to deal with non-residential waste, or for facilities that were in place prior to December 31, 2000.  The City can control what comes in to the public system through regulatory and financial means but cannot control the flow of waste to private sector operators.


Municipal IC&I Approach


This is the situation across the Province and typically municipal governments take a hands-off approach to the management of IC&I waste, leaving it up to the private sector to put programs and systems in place to competitively manage it.


Currently, the City of Ottawa receives IC&I waste at the municipal Landfills and offers the Yellow Bag program for collection from small business.  The Yellow Bag program is offered on an as requested basis to commercial enterprises that generate waste of comparable materials and volumes to those of households.  Currently there are just over 300 businesses involved in the program.  All other businesses and institutions contract with the private sector for waste collection, diversion, and disposal services.




Private Sector IC&I Approach


The private sector assesses the market place and addresses gaps in waste management services in a competitive manner.  Traditionally, this has meant the provision of collection services, siting and operation of private sector landfills or transfer stations; and, the development of recycling facilities to accommodate commercially viable recyclables from the IC&I sector.


In all cases it is economics or regulation, which drives the private sector process.  When waste materials have limited commercial value, the private sector limits recycling services or prices them accordingly[5].  Where there is insufficient demand for recycling due to the lack of regulatory requirements or the size of the local economy, the service will not be provided unless doing so can optimize use of other systems, such as the residential infrastructure, in an economic fashion.


2.3    IC&I Waste Stream in Context


The current approach to managing IC&I waste has led to a situation where the private sector is responsible for managing the overall system, for reacting to waste diversion requirements and for putting programs in place.  This has led to a system where:


§         Availability of information on overall IC&I waste quantities is limited;

§         Details on the diversion which occurs within the sector is limited;

§         The City has no direct regulatory authority over the IC&I waste stream; and

§         Private Sectors Initiatives focus on waste disposal rather than diversion.


This strategy describes how the City proposes to address these issues.


3.0    GOALS


Diversion 2015 is a strategic plan by the City of Ottawa to reduce the flow of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional (IC&I) waste to municipal and private landfill sites over the next six years. It is supported by an Implementation Plan that provides additional detail on the steps and expected outcomes. The City will work with representatives from specific IC&I sectors (including waste service providers) to ensure that that the Implementation Plan reflects the needs, challenges, and opportunities of each sector.


The primary goals of Diversion 2015 are:


§         To effect sustained measurable reductions in the gross per capita quantity of waste generated in the City of Ottawa;


§         To maximize the amount of waste diverted from landfill, and to defer the need for and minimize the scale of landfill expansions in the City of Ottawa; and


§         To target 60% diversion of the IC&I waste stream, based on 2007 quantities, from disposal by 2015.


In order to maximize diversion, and meet these goals, a fundamental shift in mindset needs to occur within the IC&I sector.  A change needs to occur in how waste businesses view waste that they generate.


Waste ceases to be “garbage” and becomes a resource when someone is willing to take it or buy it from the generator.  The process by which this occurs is a function of the quality and quantity of the material separated from the waste stream, and the proximity to viable markets.  When businesses begin to think of waste as a commodity, they are more willing to invest time and resources into maintaining the quality of the product and preparing it for market.


Unfortunately, processing systems and markets do not exist in Ottawa for all recyclable materials, even if this mind shift were to occur.  Stimulating market development and ensuring market availability for recyclable materials then becomes an important part of any long-term waste diversion strategy.


The City can attempt to facilitate the market development process by banning materials from disposal and making diversion mandatory.  These initiatives do however require a reasonable notification and implementation period to be successful.  The business community, if given a reasonable timeframe and a suitable financial framework will then respond with the set up of appropriate systems.  In addition to fostering waste diversion, such measures can also stimulate business development and job creation.


However, when we consider:

·         The City’s limited legal ability to manage and control the IC&I waste stream and related systems;

·         The availability of private sector landfills both within and outside of the City, and private sector transfer stations shipping waste out of the City, all of which are outside of the City’s control; and,

·         The significant economic and logistic barriers to the City taking over control of the IC&I waste stream.


The City’s ability to direct and control the overall IC&I waste management system is minimal.


A realistic and sustainable IC&I waste management strategy must therefore focus on those portions of the system that are within the City’s direct control and on areas where the City can have some influence.  The approach needs to address maximizing diversion of materials that are present in the largest volumes and for which viable markets exist or can be readily established.





Our overall objectives can be summarised under the following major categories:


1.       To inform: Through provision of education, training, and technical assistance programs to the IC&I Sector.


2.       To influence:

Through the use of financial controls at our own facilities, lobbying other levels of government for legislative changes, working with the Private Sector such that similar controls are in place and development of public recognition programs to promote IC&I diversion success.


3.       To partner and enable:

Working with the waste service sector on the range of services needed to meet waste collection and processing requirements and work with the Private Sector on facilitating development of markets for recyclable materials.


4.       To direct and control:

Through the use of appropriate regulatory and financial tools to control access to the Municipal system to ensure that Ottawa businesses and institutions are able to operate on a level playing field with respect to the City’s management of solid waste and to use regulatory and financial tools to stimulate market development for recyclable materials.


5.       To lead by example:

Through a comprehensive in-house waste diversion plan and the championing of solid waste diversion issues at the municipal, provincial, and national level.


6.       To increase diversion:

Through focus on waste streams that represent significant volumes of waste, or materials for which diversion programs can be readily and affordably established, specifically: paper products; blue box materials; organics; asphalt shingles; gypsum board; and clean wood, and to work on market development in order to ensure viable long term markets for recyclable materials.




Where Will The City Focus Their Efforts?


The City will need to focus on addressing the areas within its control and on influencing those areas outside of its control.


Approaching Those Areas Within the City’s Control


The initial focus will be on implementing controls designed to maximise diversion from disposal at the City’s landfill, such that IC&I waste delivered to the City owned facilities, or collected from City owned or operated facilities must meet our regulatory requirements for separation, diversion and disposal.


Once regulatory restrictions are in place at the City’s landfills this may have the effect of diverting more material away from the City’s facilities, to private sector facilities outside of the City’s control.  While this approach may seem to go against broader environmental goals, since the regulation of private facilities is outside of the City’s control, it transfers the focus to an economic process.  As the cost of shipping increases local private facilities will begin to focus on local options, which will result in increased focus on waste diversion to preserve capacity at their facilities.


Eventually, when a situation arises where these facilities are no longer available, the IC&I sector will then need to comply with the City’s requirements for waste separation and diversion, before waste can be delivered to our facilities, ultimately accomplishing the intended purpose.


The focus of the City’s efforts will be on the materials present in the largest volumes and with viable markets, this includes:


§          Paper including:

o        Old Corrugated Cardboard (OCC);

o        Mixed Paper; and

o        Old Newspaper.


§          Blue Box Materials:

o        Plastic bottles;

o        Aluminium; and

o        Ferrous metals.


As the City’s composting programs develop and the organics composting facility is in place, steps can be taken and programs can be developed for:


§          Kitchen Organics, in the following sectors:

o        Accommodation & Food Services;

o        Health Care & Social Services;

o        Retail Food Stores; and

o        Educational Facilities.


As Markets develop for C&D materials, steps can be taken and programs can be developed for:


§          C&D:

o        Asphalt Shingles,

o        Metals,

o        Clean Wood,

o        Gypsum Board.


Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the percentage of the waste stream that each material represents.


Figure 1 – Ottawa IC&I Waste Composition, estimate


Figure 2 – Ottawa C&D Waste Composition, estimate



Diverting 75% of the paper, blue box, and organics in the IC&I portion of the waste stream, and 75% of the shingles, metal and wood waste contained in the C&D waste stream will achieve the targeted diversion rate of 60% of the combined waste stream.  To exceed that level will require a shift in focus to materials of smaller volume or that are more difficult to separate for recovery.   Eventually, a point will be reached where the cost to divert certain materials will far exceed the benefits to be derived (i.e. the Law of Diminishing Returns).


Working With the Province to Influence Areas Beyond the City’s Direct Control


Although the City recognizes the limitation of its legal authority and would prefer not to take on enforcement responsibilities, the City will:

§         Advocate for the enforcement of the 3Rs regulations, working closely with the local Ministry of the Environment (MOE) office to ensure that the enforcement is taking place;

§         Explore whether some of the IC&I City data collected by the MOE could be shared with the City to give greater accuracy to the City of Ottawa IC&I waste model and database; and

§         Advocate that the Province ban specific material from all public and private landfills over the longer term if IC&I diversion rates in the City of Ottawa do not increase.





In order to achieve measurable success in waste diversion we have developed a Strategy that consists of three distinct, yet overlapping Phases:


Phase 1 – Gathering information and Demonstrating Leadership

Phase 2 – Promoting, Enabling & Mandating Diversion

Phase 3 – Maintaining a Level Playing Field


Phase 1 – Gathering Information and Demonstrating Leadership


Gathering Information


One of the difficulties encountered during the preparation of the Strategy is the significant information gap that exists in quantifying the level of diversion activity currently underway in the IC&I Sector. Existing data collection tools do not provide sufficient information to allow us to accurately assess IC&I activities.


As a result one of our key areas of focus will be to gather better information regarding IC&I waste generation, diversion, and disposal trends in the City and to put in place systems to keep the information updated.


This will involve the following key activities:

§         Establish a Waste Service Providers Advisory Group;

§         Review and update the current waste management facility Consent Program to capture information on waste flow into, through, and out of the City;

§         Provide assistance to businesses and institutions interested in conducting waste audits and sharing their findings; and

§         Confirm local baseline waste generation and diversion rates in our current dynamic environment.


Demonstrating Leadership


The City of Ottawa has almost 14,500 employees, owns over 900 buildings and facilities that occupy almost 1.2 million m2 of space. The City also manages waste collection from public spaces (e.g. city parks, transit stations, and sidewalks.)[6]  As a corporation, however, while the City has a diversion program in place, the diversion level, currently estimated at 25%, can be improved, as can our in-house recycling efforts to address areas not currently covered.  As the driver of the IC&I strategy, it is essential that the City demonstrate leadership by optimizing recycling at its various facilities and sites.


Toward that end the City will need to develop plans and programs to expand its efforts, including providing appropriate levels of service in public spaces.


Working with the various City Committees, Departments and Agencies that have jurisdiction over City buildings, facilities and programs, the following key activities will be undertaken:


§         Confirm current programs, diversion rates and levels of service in City facilities;

§         Establish target levels of service by facility type;

§         Install or modify recycling systems and review collection contracts and approach to address service gaps;

§         Promote diversion at City facilities to staff and visitors;

§         Implementation of recycling at events held in municipal facilities and parks;

§         Develop a plan for recycling at OC Transpo sites including bus stops; and

§         Develop a plan for recycling in parks and public rights-of-way.


Phase 2 – Promoting, Enabling & Mandating Diversion


The process of promoting, enabling and mandating diversion consists of 5 key steps and involves the gradual introduction of non-regulatory and regulatory measures on a material-by-material basis to restrict delivery of commercially recyclable wastes to City owned landfills or other disposal outlets.  The five-step approach involves:


5 Steps






Step 1

Promote & Educate


Inform IC&I waste generators of the importance of waste minimization and diversion, of their regulatory obligations, and of opportunities to increase diversion.  Work with haulers and private sector operators to standardize data collection methods and structure.



Step 2

Facilitate Diversion


Provide IC&I waste generators with tools and information that will help them to improve their diversion rates, and use strategic partnerships to expand the scope of diversion services, including material markets, available in Ottawa.  Promote the Yellow Bag program and work with Haulers to develop/expand appropriate collection programs for recyclables.



Step 3 – Implement Differential Tipping Fees


Use financial incentives including imposing a surcharge at the municipal landfills on loads containing specific recyclable materials.  Work with the Private sector to maintain similar fee structure.



Step 4

Mandate Diversion


Require mandatory source separation of those recyclable materials with available markets.  Work with Private sector service providers to enact similar requirements.  Use the Municipal Consents program where possible to address requirements for new and/or expanded facilities within the City.



Step 5 – Impose Ban at City Landfills


Prohibit the disposal of specific recyclables at municipal landfills in Ottawa and work with private sector facilities to mirror the City’s approach.


The value of this approach is that it allows individual waste streams (e.g. mixed paper and metals) to be addressed separately according to the volume, ease of diversion, program availability, and whether viable markets exist.  In some cases, such as blue box material and office paper, the City can move quickly through the steps or actually skip some steps, as there is a well-established history of diversion with local processing facilities and markets in place.  Appendix A provides details on the status of programs for various materials as well as the timing for moving through the 5-step process.


Phase 3 – Maintaining a Level Playing Field,


Once key elements of this strategy are in place, the impact on diversion rates will depend upon the degree to which Ottawa’s businesses and institutions make use of and comply with the City’s diversion policies and programs.  The regulatory approach proposed in this strategy places all IC&I facilities on a level playing field when it comes to the use of City facilities and programs.


As previously mentioned, the movement of material away from the City’s facilities as the City’s regulatory requirements become more stringent is highly likely to occur.  While implementing mandatory diversion addresses the requirement at City facilities, it will not on its own address the impacts of this movement of material to private sector facilities and the potential poor participation in waste diversion initiatives set up by the City.  Eventually however, when a situation arises where the private sector facilities are no longer available the IC&I sector will then need to comply with the City’s requirements for waste separation and diversion in order to use our facilities.


At that point achieving and maintaining diversion targets will require compliance monitoring and enforcement.  A visible and meaningful compliance monitoring and enforcement program is important for three reasons:

§         It provides waste processors (markets) with some assurance that investments made to support increased diversion will be worthwhile;

§         It provides a level playing field amongst Ottawa’s businesses and institutions, and a willingness to comply; and

§         It serves as a deterrent to those that typically do not participate unless penalized for non-compliance.


The specific design of the compliance monitoring and enforcement program and any associated requirements, will be undertaken as part of the finalization of the strategy after public consultation and during the development of an overall implementation plan. 




Significant effort and investment will be required to achieve the goals and objectives of Diversion 2015.  The targets and projections contained herein are based upon best estimates of population and employment growth and available waste characterization and volume data, which may change over time.  Ongoing review and assessment will be needed to monitor and quantify the progress towards the diversion goal, as well as to ensure that the approach and methods employed are appropriate and achieving the desired results.  Development of data collection and management strategies in the early stages of the process will be important in order to accurately assess progress.


The strategy has been developed with a goal of achieving 60% diversion by 2015.  Regular reports to Council will outline the status of diversion efforts and the progress towards the 60% target, along with program and budget updates.  Other measures of success to be included are number of units participating in the City’s program (facilities, parks, transit stations), Yellow Bag registration, awareness level (surveys), and number of business designations and/or awards.


8.0    COSTS


Implementation of this strategy will require significant investment over time.  In return for this investment, the diversion of IC&I waste from disposal will increase from approximately 17% to 60% by 2015.


IC&I waste generators will also incur costs as a result of this strategy, particularly where they have limited or no recycling services in place, where separation and segregation of waste is required for recycling and where there is limited space to facilitate waste separation.  However, it is expected that over time the cost to recycle will be less than the cost for disposal.  Once the initial investment is made in setting up systems and programs we expect that businesses will experience an overall reduction in their costs as they move away from managing “garbage” towards managing “recyclables”.  Some recyclables can already be hauled free of charge when quantities are large and market conditions are favourable, further there are already some financial incentives for delivery of clean loads of separated materials to recycling facilities.


A budget of $1,000,000 for the first three years of the program has been prepared.  The 3-Year Implementation Plan is attached to the Council Report as Document 3. 

Appendix A – Overview by Material


Estimated Tonnage 2005

Percentage of Whole

Availability of infrastructure & services

Level of Awareness

State of the market

Regulatory Status

Current approach at Municipal Landfill

Proposed timing

Old Corrugated Cardboard


15% of IC&I

Readily Available.  95-gallon carts, 6 or 8 ydł front-end containers, roll-off bins or cardboard compactors.

Widespread amongst retail malls and major outlets.  Less known amongst small business owners

Good Market.  Number of Haulers providing services.  One local processor.  Significant variability in costs reported by IC&I generators.

O. Reg. 103/94 requires OCC to be recycled by various larger sized IC&I generators

Restricted from disposal.  Surcharge of 100% on mixed loads.  Bunker available on-site for separation of small loads.

Currently loads containing more than 10% recyclables are charged twice the tipping fee. Reduce to 5% at City facilities Jan. 1, 20110.

Mixed Paper & Old Newsprint


32% of IC&I

Readily available.  95-gallon carts, 6 or 8 ydł front-end containers, roll-off bins.

Widespread amongst office buildings and institutions.  Less known amongst other generators.

Good Market.  Number of Haulers, providing services.  One local processor.  Significant variability in costs reported by IC&I generators.

O. Reg. 103/94 requires Fine Paper and Newsprint to be recycled by various larger sized IC&I generators.

Restricted from disposal.  Separation requested.  No Surcharge on mixed loads.

Differential tipping fees for mixed loads Feb. 1, 2009.  Ban from disposal at City facilities Jan. 1, 2010. (Step 5)

Blue Box Materials


25% of IC&I

Readily available.  95-gallon carts, 6 or 8 ydł front-end containers, roll-off bins.

Widespread amongst many IC&I generators surveyed.

Good Market.  Number of Haulers, providing services.   Significant variability in costs reported by IC&I generators.

O. Reg. 103/94 requires certain restaurants and hotels/motels to recycle Aluminium, glass, steel and PET.  Only large manufacturers are required to recycle LDPE / HDPE and polystyrene.

Restricted from disposal.  Separation requested.  No Surcharge on mixed loads.

Differential tipping fees for mixed loads Feb. 1, 2009.  Ban from disposal at City facilities Jan. 1, 2010. (Step 5)



Estimated Tonnage 2005

Percentage of Whole

Availability of infrastructure & services

Level of Awareness

State of the market

Regulatory Status

Current approach at Municipal facilities

Proposed timing



10% of C&D

Available provided metals are separated from other waste.  Range of services offered for collection (various sizes of roll-off containers)

High level of awareness reported during consultation, metals have high value in the marketplace.

Good marketplace.  IC&I generators are charged for collection/haul although price of this commodity is high.  

O. Reg. 103/94 requires large construction and demolition projects (over 2,000 m3) to recycle steel.

Restricted from disposal.  Separation requested.  Generally well separated due to high value.

Differential tipping fees for mixed loads Feb. 1, 2009.  Ban from disposal at City facilities Jan. 1, 2010. (Step 5)

Clean Wood

51,000 (70% of total C&D wood waste)

20% of C&D

Many outlets will accept wood for processing.  Haulers offer range of services for collection (various sizes of roll-off containers)

High level of awareness reported during consultation.

Good marketplace with many options for clean wood processing.  A number of waste service providers will collect wood wastes.

O. Reg. 103/94 requires large construction and demolition projects (over 2,000 mł) to recycle clean wood

Separated loads of clean, untreated wood can be chipped and used on site.  Nothing in place for loads if mixed wood.  Possible pilot scale program under investigation

Work on Market development for treated wood.  Differential tipping fees Jan 1, 2011, ban from Disposal Jan. 1, 2012.



16% of IC&I

Not readily available.  

Generators have less knowledge/awareness of organics diversion options.  When surveyed only one IC&I generator reported having organics collection.

Poor market currently.  Few haulers, providing services.

No regulated requirement for organics diversion by IC&I sector.

No programs in place.  Composting facility for City organics under development.  Programs for IC&I organics can be developed once facility is in place.

Differential tipping fees starting Jan. 1, 2011.  Ban from disposal at City facilities Jan 1, 2012.



Estimated Tonnage 2005

Percentage of Whole

Availability of infrastructure & services

Level of Awareness

State of the market

Regulatory Status

Current approach at Municipal facilities

Proposed timing

Asphalt Shingles


13% of C&D

No current programs in place


No current options for processing shingles.  Competitive marketplace needs to develop.

O. Reg. 103/94 does not require diversion of asphalt

No current programs in place for asphalt shingles.  Possible pilot scale program under investigation. 

Work on Market development.  Differential tipping fees Jan 1, 2012, ban from Disposal Jan. 1, 2013.



11% of C&D

Not readily available.  

Generators have less knowledge/awareness or gypsum diversion options.  Only one IC&I generator surveyed reported diverting gypsum.

Poor market currently.  Few haulers, providing services.  Currently the only processor is located in Oakville, necessitating long haul of gypsum for diversion.

O. Reg. 103/94 requires large construction projects (over 2,000 m3) to recycle gypsum.

No current programs in place for gypsum.  Some investigations have been done by the private sector.   Local market development required to reduce haulage costs to Oakville.

Work on Market development.  Differential tipping fees Jan. 1, 2013, ban from Disposal Jan. 1, 2014.



[1] Ottawa is an exception, with two sizable municipally owned landfills that accept waste from the IC&I sector.

[2] Source:  2001 Statistics Canada, NAISC for Ottawa.

[3] Ibid, estimate based upon number of businesses with 5 or fewer full-time employees.

[4] Source:  MOE, March 28, 2008.

[5] High prices can render recycling unaffordable.

[6] Source:  RPAM and HR, May 2008.