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Project information

About the Collection

The Andrews - Newton Collection consists of two million prints and negatives, covering the period of 1946 to 1993. The majority of the collection contains 4 x 5 and 5 x 7 black-and-white negatives, with only one per cent of the images in colour.

The City of Ottawa Archives received the first in a series of deposits in 1977. A formal deed of gift was signed in 1996, transferring legal ownership to the City Archives. The assigned reference number for this group of images is Manuscript Group (MG) 393.

The works have been further subdivided into the following periods: BJ for Bill and Jean Newton Photo (1942 to 1952); NP for Newton Photographic Associates Ltd. (1952 to 1960); AH for Andrews – Hunt Photographers (1959 to 1973) and AN for Andrews – Newton Photographers (1973 to 1994).

For further information about the Andrews - Newton Photographic Collection, or to view, research or obtain copies, please contact the Reference Desk or visit the City of Ottawa Archives.

Primary sources

The Ottawa Citizen, 1945-1960.

The City of Ottawa Archives Historical Files. [The Historical Files at the City of Ottawa Archives are a collection of clippings and documents on a wide variety of subject areas. They are found in the Reference Room of the City of Ottawa Archives.]

Bounsall, Clifford A. Chairman. Sparks Street Mall: An Experiment in Downtown Revitalization. Ottawa: Report of the Research Committee, 1960.

National Research Council Archives. “Report on accident in N.R.C. Heating Plant, 12 December 1955.” March 1956, NRC #35694. Declassified 26 November 1992.


Newton, Greg. Interview by Leah Batisse. 27 January 2009.

Grant, Ted. Interview by Leah Batisse. 10 November 2008.


Official Plan of Roads. Base Map. Prepared by Planning Branch. City of Ottawa, January 1960. Revised May 1961.

Federal District Commission Map. Compiled, drawn and printed at the Hydrographic and Map Service, Labelle Building Ottawa. 6 June 1946.

Insurance Plan of the City of Ottawa. Key Plan to Volumes: Volume 1. July 1956. Partially revised November 1963. Toronto, Canada: Underwriters Survey Bureau, Ltd.

Selected bibliography

Books and Articles

Aitkin, Sally, Helen D’Orazio and Stewart Valin eds. Walking Fingers: The Story of Polio and Those who lived with it. Montreal: Véhicule Press, 2004.

Babad, Michael and Catherine Mulroney. Campeau: The Building of an Empire. Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1989.

Benidict, Michael, ed. Canada in the Fifties: from the archives of MacLean’s. Toronto: Penguin Books Canada, 1999.

Cook, Ramsey, and Réal Bélanger eds. Canada’s Prime Ministers : Macdonald to Trudeau Portraits from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

Davis, Donald F. “A Capital Crime? The Long Death of Ottawa’s Electric Railway” Ottawa: Making A Capital. Eds. Jeff Keshen and Nicole St-Onge. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2001. p. 349-375.

Fischer, Doug ed. Our Times: A Pictorial Memoir of Ottawa’s Past. Ottawa: Ottawa Citizen, 2000.

Fischer, Doug ed. To the Editor: A Century of Letters. Ottawa: The Ottawa Citizen, 2000.

Gillmor, Don; Achille Menaud and Pierre Turgeon. Canada: A People’s History vol. 2. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2001.

Haig, Robert. Ottawa: City of the Big Ears. Ottawa: Haig and Haig Publishing Co., 1975.

Hiller, James K. “Newfoundland Confronts Canada, 1867-1949.” The Atlantic Provinces In Confederation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. 349-381.

McAuley, Jim. The Ottawa Sports Book: Vignettes from Ottawa’s Sport History. Burnstown, Ontario: General Store Publication House, 1987.

Melady, John. Pearson’s Prize: Canada and the Suez Crisis. Toronto: The Dundurn Group, 2006.

Rooke, P. T. and R. L. Schnell. No Bleeding Heart: Charlotte Whitton A Feminist On The Right. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987.

Sebestyen, Victor. Twelve Days Revolution 1956: how the Hungarians tried to topple their Soviet masters. London: Orion Publishing Group, 2006.

Woods, Jr., Shirley E. Ottawa: The Capital of Canada. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Ltd., 1980.

Online Sources

Gordon, David “Weaving A Modern Plan For Canada’s Capital: Jacques Greber and the 1950 Plan for the National Capital Region.” Urban History Review. March 1, 2001. <> Accessed 24 February 2009.

Former Governors General. <> Accessed 23 February 2009.

The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed 24 February 2009. <>

The History of the Canadian Tulip Festival: A Celebration Founded on Friendship. Accessed 21 January 2009.

Complete Bibliography

The bibliography is divided by section, and each section is divided into primary and secondary sources. The HF Files (Historical Files) at the City of Ottawa Archives are a collection of clippings and documents on a wide variety of subject areas.

Learn More

Project credits

This project was made possible – in part or entirely – through the Canadian Culture Online Program of Canadian Heritage, Library and Archives Canada and the Canadian Council of Archives.

Library and Archives Canada

Steering Committee
Andrew Roger
John Taylor

City Archives Project Manager
Paul J. Henry

Virtual Exhibition Project Coordinator
Signe Jeppesen

Content Management Team
Signe Jeppesen
Leah Batisse
Margaret Bennetto
Catherine Love

Photograph Scanning and Captions
Leah Batisse

Serge Blondin

Educational Resource Development
Michele LeBoldus

Greg Dunlop
Pallavi Wadhwa

The Project Team would like to thank:
Greg Newton
Ted Grant
The National Research Council Archives
The Ottawa Public Library – Main Branch Periodicals Section, and The Ottawa Room
The Staff of the City of Ottawa Archives

Educational resources for teachers and students

The Andrews-Newton Collection is a unique educational resource chronicling Ottawa’s post Second World War history from 1945 to 1960.

With over two million images, this collection opens up an educational panorama for students of various abilities, interests and cultural backgrounds. For this online exhibit, sixty-two photos have been chosen as an overview for educational purposes.

The curriculum areas targeted are for Grades 11 and 12 and address the topics of Interdisciplinary Studies, Canadian and World Studies and History. However, cross-curricular opportunities in Language Arts (English / French), French as a Second Language and English as a Second Language, Media Arts and Dramatic Arts abound.

While the emphasis has been placed on the secondary level, elements of the Andrews-Newton exhibit are an excellent research tool for students in Grades 7 and 8 and especially for those being home-schooled.

Another research option of the collection exists for students participating in the annual Historica fair, sponsored by The Beaver magazine. Further information can be found at under fairs.

All suggestions presented here are guidelines to get students exploring the theme of post-war Ottawa. Many of the questions allow for group work. It is hoped that interested teachers will adapt and create new curricula opportunities by defining other themes in this vast collection.


As with any project, your feedback would be appreciated. Hopefully, pictures from the Andrews-Newton collection will generate discussion and lead to new ways for your students to research the themes. We would be pleased to hear about the different ways you have used this exhibition in your classrooms.

Grade 11
Physical Geography: Pattern, Process and Interactions

Human-Environment Interactions
Overall Expectations:

• Evaluate the impact of natural systems on people and their activities.

• Evaluate the impact of human life on the environment.

Building Knowledge and Understanding
Specific Expectations:
    • Describe the effects of human activities (e.g., urban expansion, resource exploitation) on various aspects of the environment
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Markets, as social gathering places, are important anchors in communities. Explore reasons why communities need them:
    • How would you define "community"?
    • What are the essential elements of any market?
    • What are the similarities / differences of an urban vs. rural market?
    • Why is the Byward Market considered an important focus in Ottawa’s vibrant, urban downtown?
    • What factors are contributing to the resurgence of farmer’s markets' in urban and rural areas?
    • In what kind of market would you shop, and for what would you be shopping?
  • Compare / contrast the Byward Market with another local market. Using photos to present your findings, outline what are the essentials components in each one.
  • Using the Mackenzie King Bridge photo from the Construction and Expansion section, explore the following:
    • What vantage point do you think the photo was taken from?
    • If possible, compare the view then and now and describe / compare the changes you see.
  • Veteran's housing at Carling Avenue and Merivale Road was a planned post-war subdivision. What planning elements still make it a successful community fifty years later?
  • View the City of Ottawa's planning document Ottawa 20/20 available online at What is the proposed vision for transportation in the next twenty years? Where would you add green space and infill housing?

A major topic for several of the following sections / themes in the exhibit is the Gréber Report as it covers many of the overall and specific expectations of this curriculum focus.

There are several non-circulating copies of the Gréber report in English and French at the Ottawa Public Library:

  • Main Branch, in the Ottawa Room - 120 Metcalfe Street, downtown Ottawa.
  • Nepean Centrepointe Branch – 101 Centrepointe Drive, near Algonquin College
  • After reading the recommendations for urban renewal in the Gréber Report, what do you think was the most difficult task to get the project from paper to reality? What were the main objections and do you think these were valid?
  • What was to be the major form of transportation in this report? Has it been a successful plan fifty years later? If changes are needed, what would you alter and why?
  • You are an urban planner in 1967 tasked with designing more green space. Using the 1961 map in the exhibit, where would you add it and for what purposes?
  • Examine a map of Ottawa today. Where do you find the most successful mix of housing and green space?
  • Has urban sprawl been contained appropriately according to the Gréber Report? If not, what factors have prevented this?

Grade 11
Canadian History and Politics Since 1945

Overall Expectations:
  • Assess key ways in which Canadian society has changed since 1945.
Communities: Local, National, Global
Overall Expectations:
  • Analyse the influence that recently arrived and more established peoples and cultures have had on Canadian society since 1945.
Specific Expectations
  • Compare the experiences of various immigrant or refugee groups that have come to Canada since 1945 (e.g., displaced persons who migrated after the Second World War, Hungarian refugees in 1956).
Citizenship and Heritage
Overall Expectations
  • Explain how different individuals and communities in Canada seek to fulfil their ambitions and express their identities.
Specific Expectations
  • Identify significant Canadians who through their actions have affected Canada’s image at home and/or abroad (e.g., Rosalie Abella. Susan Aglukark, Lester B. Pearson).
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957. Discuss / research how he affected Canada’s image at home and abroad. What effect did it have on the national conscience?
  • Research the criteria for the Nobel Peace Prize. Discuss who the candidates were along with Lester B. Pearson and why he was chosen for the award.
  • The year 1949 was pivotal in Canadian history. Joseph Smallwood’s photo was seen across the country. Explore the arguments of the day for and against Newfoundland joining Canada. In your opinion, has it been a success?
  • Use the picture of the Soviet embassy fire to lead a discussion of the Cold War. Define the term “Cold War “, and explore its’ effects on Ottawa as the Nation’s Capital and as a city. Why do you think the Soviets were so desperate to stop firefighters from entering the structure?
  • What rights are accorded foreign missions / embassies in Canada? What rights do Canadian embassies or the Canadian High Commissions have in foreign countries?
  • What is the function of an embassy or high commission?

Grade 12
Canada: History, Identity and Culture

Overall Expectations:
  • Analyse how various Francophone individuals have defined themselves and their place in Canada.
  • Analyse the changing roles and contributions of women.
Canadian Citizenship, French Canadian Identity
Specific Expectations:
  • Describe the roll of significant French-Canadian political and cultural figures in the development of the French presence in Canada (e.g., Georges Vanier).
Women in Canada
Specific Expectations:
  • Analyse the contributions of women to the Canadian identity (e.g., Barbara Ann Scott, Marilyn Bell, Charlotte Whitton).
Methods of Historical Inquiry and Communication
Overall Expectations:
  • Use methods of historical inquiry to locate, gather, evaluate, and organise research materials from a variety of sources.
Specific Expectations:
  • Formulate questions for research and inquiry and develop a plan to guide research.
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Using the photo of Charlotte Whitton, discuss her contributions to Canada’s capital as the country’s first female mayor.
  • In what ways has Newfoundland benefited from confederation? What makes this province unique? How did Joseph Smallwood convince Newfoundlanders that joining Canada was the best option?
  • Some feel Newfoundland lost part of its' identity. Debate the effects of confederation on Newfoundland’s identity and culture.
  • Choose another politician from the Andrews-Newton exhibit and discuss, how in your view, they have added to the Canadian identity either at home or abroad.
  • General Georges Vanier was Canada’s first French-Canadian Governor General. He is seen wearing his regimental uniform in the exhibit. What regiment is it? Discuss his appointment by putting it into context Québec’s political climate of the day. What is the legacy of his tenure as Governor General for Canadians?
  • Prime Ministers John Diefenbaker and Louis St. Laurent are represented in this online exhibit. Highlight their policies for post war recovery.
  • Female athletes Barbara Ann Scott, Marilyn Bell, and Anne Heggtveit are represented in this online exhibit. As female sports heroines of the day, how did they influence future female athletes in their respective sports and what changes have ensued since? Do you consider elite female athletes today to be role models, and if so why? Male athletes from the exhibit and their sports may be used instead.
  • You are a candidate for mayor in the upcoming Ottawa municipal election. Charlotte Whitton is also a candidate. You are to debate the issues at an all candidates meeting. What is your platform compared to hers? You may substitute another mayor from the collection as your opponent instead.
  • Using the photo of Jean Drapeau as a discussion tool, explore / discuss his political career in relation to Canadian and Quebecois identity.

Grade 12
World Geography: Human Patterns and Interactions

Human-Environment Interactions
Overall Expectations:
  • Describe how the natural environment influences the location and development of settlements.
  • Explain how humans modify the environment to meet urban needs.
Building Knowledge and Understanding
Specific Expectations:
  • Explain how changes in political, economic, environmental, and social policies affect selected urban environments (e.g., policies related to the preservation of green space, garbage disposal, highway construction).
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • What did the politicians of the day see as advantages to containing urban sprawl? Had the design ideas been implemented anywhere else with success? Why was the design innovative?
  • Using the 1961 maps in the exhibit, compare to a present-day view of what green space remains from the original report. Has land been added to the original design or has initially-designated green space disappeared? Were there changes and why?
  • Choose a photo from the online exhibit that shows a beneficial change to the city and discuss why.
  • When people were displaced from their LeBreton Flats community, it was a traumatic event. Consider the following questions in a personal memoir you have been asked to submit to the Ottawa Citizen five years later. You are the head of the household. Reference to the Gréber Report is necessary for this work:
    • How and why was this area chosen for urban renewal?
    • What were the options provided to you for new housing?
    • What adjustments did you find were the most difficult?
    • What are your feelings now, have there been positive results of the move?

Grade 11
Dramatic Arts

Overall Expectations:
  • By the end of this course, students will create and present an original or adapted dramatic work.
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Based on the Andrews-Newton photo of Ted Hanratty, create and perform a skit of what led the criminal to give himself up to the reporter. Using only what you can see in the picture, script the setting, characters, motive and ending. Remembering the setting is the 1950’s, use language / slang of the day to create this event.
  • Create a skit based on the background motive the criminal had to give himself up to a reporter. Questions to consider:
    • Why choose a newspaper reporter?
    • Why choose the Ottawa Citizen as opposed to an Ottawa Journal reporter?
    • Was the criminal seeking media attention for his crime?
  • Write an eyewitness account of the event as you saw it unfold from your vantage point near a doorway. You were unseen to the criminal and the reporter.

Grade 12
Dramatic Arts

Specific Expectations:
  • Create an original or adapted dramatic presentation, using a variety of strategies (e.g., research, improvisation, workshop techniques).
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Based on the Andrews-Newton photo of Ted Hanratty, create and perform a play of what led the criminal to give himself up to the reporter. Using only what you can see in the picture, script the setting, characters, motive and ending. Remembering the setting is the 1950’s, use language / slang of the day to create this event. This is a team project with students exploring the many facets of a theatre production.
  • Create a play based on the background motive the criminal had to give himself up to a reporter. Questions to consider:
    • Why did he give himself up?
    • Did he have a criminal record or was this a first offence?
    • What was the social /economic atmosphere of the day, was this a factor?
    • Why choose a newspaper reporter?
    • Why choose the Ottawa Citizen as opposed to an Ottawa Journal reporter? Why not a radio or TV personality?
    • Was the criminal seeking media attention for his crime?
    • How was his crime perceived by the public?

Interdisciplinary Studies

Grade 11
Applied Journalism

Theory and Foundations
Overall Expectations:
  • By the end of this course, students will demonstrate an understanding of the different perspectives and approaches used in each of the subjects or disciplines studied.
Ideas and Issues
Specific Expectations:
  • By the end of this course, students will be able to analyse significant changes in the past from the role of information and communication in contemporary society. They will describe ways in which practitioners in each of the subjects or disciplines studied meet information challenges (e.g., creating new disciplines or fields of study, developing new networks for learning and sharing information, harnessing new technologies to solve problems).
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • The Hungarian Revolution has begun in Europe. On October 28th, 1956, Bill Newton gives you that day’s assignment - get pictures at the Hungarian Anti-Soviet demonstration. You arrive quickly before the area is cordoned off by police. You are later asked by the Ottawa Citizen to write a short eyewitness account of what happens. Describe the photo you took - it will be featured on the front page to highlight your article - and write a caption for it. Questions to consider in your article:
    • Was this demonstration a new phenomenon for the City of Ottawa?
    • What impact does this demonstration have on the public awareness of events in post-war Europe?
    • Does this have an impact on the public's understanding of refugees and immigrants? If so, how and why?
    • What photographic equipment will you be using and how do you plan to set up the picture?
  • It is October 28th, 2006. You are a semi-retired freelance reporter/photographer covering the anniversary of the Hungarian revolution begun October 23rd, 1956. Your page-long feature article will appear in the Ottawa Citizen with photos from then and now. Questions to consider:
    • What effect did the original demonstration have on the citizens of Ottawa on October 28th, 1956 versus what the effect would be now?
    • You will interview a participant from the original demonstration. He also happens to be the person you interviewed 50 years ago.
    • Consider your 'then and now' impressions of the demonstration. Examine viewpoints of Hungarian-Canadians at the anniversary demonstration.
  • Write an opinion or editorial article defining Canadian identity from the viewpoint of the 1950’s. Choose a photo from the Andrews-Newton exhibit as part of your article. Can the concept of Canadian identity be defined any better today? What is your caption for the photo?
  • You have been asked to speak to new student immigrant association. These new high school students wish to know about Canadian society in the 1950’s. Consider these questions:
    • What will you say in your talk?
    • What pictures would you use from the exhibit to highlight your talk?
    • How would you use the photos to highlight your talk? (e.g. introduction, interspersed throughout or at the end?) What effect would each placement have?
    • Compare / contrast what you would say in the 1950’s to what you would say today.
  • You are a recent immigrant student to Canada. Exploring the online exhibit, what are you discovering about your new country's past? Compare / contrast with your culture.
  • Write an investigative piece on the changes to single family housing since the 1950’s. Using the photo of split-level house in the Construction and Expansion theme, choose from the following:
    • Locate an example of this type of house in an older urban Ottawa suburb and compare how this model has been adapted, renovated or landscaped since it was built. Is the original design still identifiable? Has the neighbourhood kept a community feel? Is infill predominant? Has it changed the original look of the area?
    • Compare a typical subdivision house of today to that of the 1950’s with respect to design, material used and landscaping. What are today's customer demands and needs? What type of housing predominates? What is the neighbourhood density? Write a caption for any photos used in this comparison.
  • When people were displaced from their LeBreton Flats community, it was a traumatic event. Consider the following questions in an editorial you are writing five years later as a cub reporter for the Ottawa Citizen. You were 16 at the time of the upheaval:
    • How and why was this area chosen for urban renewal according to you?
    • Were these good reasons to force you to move, why not?
    • What were the options provided to you for new housing?
    • What are your feelings now? Has there been a positive outcome to the experience?
  • Read the Newton and Grant interviews. Discuss the effect of media today. Consider the following in your answers:
    • Are daily newspapers important in this information age?
    • Are the new forms of communication (TV, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook) better adapted to presenting in-depth reporting rather than newspapers in the 1950's?
    • If you are looking for a balanced point of view on an issue of the day, where will you go to find it?
    • Are paper copies better than digital ones?
  • The following is a good discussion opener on the importance of preserving a society's history for future reference. The Andrews-Newton Collection at the City Archives has over 2 million pictures of how Canadians lived their lives in Ottawa. This collection is an important resource about life in the 1950's. How do you foresee the events, the issues and celebrations of today will be archived for future generations? How will you access this information?

Interdisciplinary Studies

Archaeological Studies

This course combines many of the expectations from Canada: History, Identity and Culture.

Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • Use the Gréber Report, and in particular the photos in the Construction and Expansion Theme of the Andrews-Newton exhibit for this discussion:
    • What, in your view, were some of the aesthetic, social and technical issues the archaeologists might have faced?
    • Were any dealt with in the report?
    • Would anything be done differently today?
    • How would you approach these issues today?
    • What archaeology would you expect to be left behind to identify the area if you were on a dig today?

Grade 12
Music and Society

Processes and Methods of Research
Overall Expectations:
  • Students learn to develop systematic research skills, focusing on the analysis and synthesis of the information they find in a range of resources.
  • Students will explore the role that music plays in the aesthetic, cultural, social, political life of contemporary society.
  • Students will examine such topics as the evolution of specific musical forms and styles.
Added research tool
  • The National Film Board has an extensive online film database at This is useful as an added research tool (e.g.: comparing film with Newton photos of Paul Anka, Elvis Presley or others in the theme “They were seen”).
Suggested Topics / Questions for Discussion and Research
  • As a student, music is a defining part of your daily life. Write a short article on your popular music tastes. Consider the following questions in your answer:
    • Why is music so essential to you?
    • How do you hear about new music?
    • What catches your attention when listening to a song for the first time - the lyrics, the instruments or the rhythm?
  • Elvis Presley's appearance at the Auditorium on April 3,1957, created pandemonium and resulted in several female students being expelled from school. Why was his music so defining of the decade? What do you consider Elvis' musical legacy? Who developed the 'bad boy' image of Elvis?
  • Paul Anka has been a successful entertainer for over 50 years. What are the strengths of his longevity?
  • Music in the 1950's was live as you experienced it at a club or a dance hall in a crowd. How do you experience music best? How does a music video enhance the experience? Can you listen to music and never see the video to appreciate it?

What are Archives?